Category Archives: Firm News


과도한 재고를 보유하고 있는 사업체는 재고를 자선 단체에 기부함으로써 미국 IRS Section 170(e)(3)조에 따라 연방 소득 공제 혜택을 받을 수 있다.  이 공제는 일반적인 C 법인이 기부한 재고의 원가와 원가와 공정시장가치 간의 차이의 절반을 더한 금액을 차감할 수 있도록 허용한다. 최대 공제 받을 수 있는 금액은 재고원가의 두 배이다. 다른 유형의 기업인 S 법인,  파트너십,  LLC,  개인 사업자 등도 바로 비용 공제를 받을 수 있다.

창고에 쌓여있는 재고를 기부하는 것은 창고 공간을 확보하고, Just-in-Time 재고 수준을 달성하는 데 도움이 되며, 기업들은 판매량이 많은 상품에 효과적으로 마케팅 할 수 있다. 또한 과다한 재고를 처분하는 어려움을 피하고 비영리 단체의 혜택을 누릴수도 있다.

위에서 언급한 바와 같이, C 법인은 아픈 사람, 도움이 필요한 사람 또는 영유아를 위해 재고를 기부할 때 더 큰 공제를 받을 수 있다. 이 공제는 기부된 재고의 비용과 해당 공정시장가치에서 판매될 경우 발생했을 이익의 절반을 더한 금액을 기준으로 한다. 그러나 청구된 공제액은 제170(e)(3)조에 따라 상품 가치의 두 배를 초과할 수 없다.

170(f)(11)(A)(ii)항은 다른 자산들과는 달리, 재고는 일반적으로 납세자에 의해 매년 평가되기 때문에 기부된 재고의 대해 가치평가를 요구하지 않는다. 자선단체에 기부된 재고의 공정시장가치(FMV)는 기부자가 기부 당시의 사실과 상황에 기반으로 문서화해야 한다.

공제액이 500달러 이상인 재고자산을 자선기부 하는 경우, 국세청은 납세자가 소득세 신고서와 함께 비현금성 자선 기부 양식인 Form 8283을 제출하도록 요구한다. 납세자가 5,000달러 미만의공제를 청구하는 기부금에 대해서는 Section A를 작성하고, 5,000달러 이상의 공제를 청구하는 기부금에 대해서는 Section B를 작성해야 한다. 공제액이 $5,000을 초과하는 경우, 수취인의 공인 대리인은 재고자산 수령을 인정하는 Form 8283에 서명해야 한다. 또한, 재고에 대한 공제액을 계산한 명세서를 첨부해야 한다.

향산된 재고 기부 공제는 C법인에 적용 가능하며, 위에서 논의한 자선 기부 목적을 위해 자선 단체가 이용할 수 있는 소비자 제품을 제공할 수있는 회사에 더 적합하다.

The Piled-up Inventories May Be Worth More Than You Think! (English Version)

Businesses with excess, non-moving inventory can benefit by donating it to charity, as they can earn a federal income tax deduction under Section 170(e)(3) of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code. This deduction allows regular C corporations to deduct the cost of the donated inventory, plus half the difference between the cost and fair market value, up to twice the cost. Other types of businesses, such as S corporations, partnerships, LLCs, and sole proprietorships, can qualify for a straight cost deduction.

Donating stagnant inventory offers several advantages, including freeing up warehouse space, helping achieve Just-in-Time inventory levels, and allowing businesses to focus their marketing efforts on top-selling items. It also helps avoid the challenges of liquidating excess inventory and benefits deserving nonprofit organizations.

As mentioned above, a C corporation may qualify for an enhanced deduction when donating inventory for the care of the ill, needy, or infants. This deduction is based on the cost of the donated inventory plus half the gross profit it would have generated if sold at its fair market value.  The claimed deduction, however, may not exceed twice the basis of the property under Sec. 170(e)(3).

Unlike other property, Sec. 170(f)(11)(A)(ii) does not require an appraisal for contributions of inventory because inventory is generally valued annually by the taxpayer. The fair market value (FMV) of inventory contributed to a charity should be documented by the donor based on the facts and circumstances at the time of the contribution.

For charitable contributions of inventory with more than $500 of increased deduction, the IRS requires the taxpayer to file Form 8283, Noncash Charitable Contributions, with its income tax return. Section A of the form should be completed for contributions for which the taxpayer claims less than $5,000 of increased deduction and Section B for contributions for which the taxpayer claims more than $5,000 of increased deduction. If the increased deduction is greater than $5,000, an authorized representative of the donee should sign Form 8283 acknowledging the receipt of the property. In addition, a statement should be attached computing the amount of increased deduction for the inventory.

Note that this enhanced inventory donation deduction is available to C-corporations and is more suitable for companies carrying consumer products that are readily available to charities for the charitable purposes discussed above.

Monetization of Research and Development (R&D) Tax Credits

Start-ups and small businesses that were previously unable to benefit from the R&D tax credits due to lack of taxability should take advantage of the payroll tax liability offset.  Internal Revenue Code (IRC) Section 41(h) allows start-ups and small businesses to use the tax credit up to $250,000 to offset against payroll tax liabilities.

Qualified Small Businesses (“QSB”) may elect to use R&D credits to offset up to $250,000 of payroll tax liability. A QSB is a corporation, partnership, or individual with less than $5 million of gross receipts during the taxable year AND did not have gross receipts for any tax year before the fifth tax year ending with the year of the claim. The payroll benefit can be claimed in the first quarter subsequent to filing the prior year income tax return.

The payroll-tax offset is available to eligible new businesses and start-up companies for up to five years. Any unused R&D credits that aren’t elected to offset payroll taxes may be carried forward for up to 20 years and used when the business becomes profitable.

Businesses with research and development activities should consult with their tax advisor if they can benefit from the credit.

Incentives for Green Energy (English Version)

President Joe Biden signed the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) of 2022 into law on August 16, 2022. The bill includes numerous investments in climate protection, including tax credits for households to reduce energy costs, and investment in clean energy production to reduce carbon emissions. Here are some incentives which can benefit individual taxpayers who are planning to purchase electric vehicles and install solar PV system on their residence.

Solar Investment Tax Credit: The federal government has incentivized homeowners to switch to solar through the solar investment tax credit (ITC), also known as the federal solar tax credit. The rate of this credit has fluctuated over the years. The IRA included an extension of the ITC. Starting on January 1, 2023, homeowners can now claim 30% of their total solar photovoltaic (PV) system installation costs as a deduction on their federal taxes. The ITC will decrease to 26% in 2033 and drop to 22% in 2034.

The ITC is available for solar customers throughout the United States. However, specific qualifications must be met to take advantage of the tax credit; (1) Solar PV system must be in place by the end of a year  to qualify for 30% deduction on the same year tax return, (2) The solar PV system must be new or being used for the first time during the specific year, (3) you must own the solar PV system. You cannot claim the tax credit if you lease your system or agree to Power purchase agreement, and (4) the solar PV system must be located at your primary residence or secondary home in the United States.

EV tax credit: The federal government has provided EV tax credits up to $7,500 to consumers who purchased battery electric vehicles through Qualified Plug-in Electric Drive Motor Vehicle Credit since 2010. The IRA amended the EV tax credit, which includes an extension of the credit with new assembly requirements. In addition, it provides a reduced $4,000 credit to taxpayers who purchase used EVs. If the taxpayer entered into a written binding contract to purchase a new qualifying electric vehicle and did not take possession of EVs before August 16, 2022, the taxpayer may claim the EV credit based on the rules before amendment.  If the taxpayer purchases and takes possession of an electric vehicle between August 16, 2022 and December 31, 2022, the vehicle must be assembled in North America.  To be qualified for the EV tax credit from January 1, 2023, battery components should be assembled and made of critical minerals which are extracted, processed, or recycled in North America. In addition, the percentage of the value of the battery’s components that were manufactured or assembled in North America has to exceed a certain threshold.

In addition to EV federal tax credit, California residents can apply for Clean Vehicle Rebate Program (CVRP) and get up to $7,000 to purchase or lease a new plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, battery electric vehicle, or a fuel cell electric vehicle.